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Danish Collective Agreement history

1920 3 days' holiday (without pay)
1931 6 days' holiday (with pay)
1938 14 days' holiday
1952 3 weeks' holiday
1972 3 weeks' holiday + 3 days
1973 4 weeks' holiday
1979 5 weeks' holiday
2003 5 weeks holiday + 5 days

Weekly working hours:
1920 48 hours
1959 45 hours
1966 44 hours
1968 42 1/2 hours
1970 41 3/4 hours
1974 40 hours
1986 39 hours
1987 38 1/2 hours
1988 38 hours
1989 37 1/2 hours
1990 37 hours

Political/union milestones:
1978 Danish Equal Treatment Act
1976 Danish Equal Pay Act
1975 Danish Working Environment Act
1973 Denmark member of the EC/EU
1973 Danish Industrial Court Act
1971 Economic Democracy
1968 Management and cooperation
1966 Sick pay scheme
1967 Red LO (Danish Federation of Trade Unions) report (Economic Democracy)
1956 Old age pension
1947 First cooperation committee agreement
1938 Danish Holidays with Pay Act
1924 First Social Democratic Government
1920 8 hours' working day
1912 Formation of the Central Organization of Danish Metal Workers, now the Central Organization of Industrial Employees in Denmark (CO-industri)
1910 2nd International's Congress in Copenhagen
1901 The victory of the principle of Cabinet responsibility and the consequent change of the Danish political system
1899 September Agreement
1878 Social Democratic Party
1873 First collective agreement
1870 Birth of the trade union
1849 Political democracy (the Constitution)
Principal elements of collective agreement renewals since 1971 -1989
CA 1971:
Increase of all wage rates.
For work on second and third shifts working time is reduced from 41 1/4 hours to 40 hours per week.
Holiday entitlement is acquired during a calendar year (the qualifying year), and the holiday must be taken in the following year.
Holidays are extended from 3 weeks to 3 weeks + 3 days.
The holiday allowance is increased from 7 to 9 1/2 per cent.
Equal pay for men and women.
The central organisations agree to seek to resolve the equal pay problem where this has not already been done. Equal pay means that equal pay is to be paid for work of equal value irrespective of sex.

CA 1973:
The conflict broke out on 21 March and work was not resumed until 10 April after the Official Conciliator had presented a new mediation proposal.
Equal pay for men and women is introduced with immediate effect, which means that the special female rates disappear. The equal pay issue must be solved before 1 July 1973.
40 hours' week from 1 December 1994. The wage compensation is fixed at DKK 0.75 per hour.
Working time for second and third shifts is reduced to 38 hours a week.
Shop steward provisions in the iron and steel industry are improved so that in future it will not be possible for an employer to dismiss a shop steward summarily.
Workers in the iron and steel industry get improved dismissal rules. For workers over 50 with 15 years' seniority: 90 days' notice.
All rates according to the Common Workshop rules are increased on average by 30-35 per cent.

AO 1975:
Government intervention:
The Government passed 7 acts, which constituted the incomes policy solution:
1. The Danish Collective Agreements Act, which extends the collective agreements. The automatic cost-of-living adjustment is maintained. The compensation allowance as a result of the reduction in working time is increased by DKK 0.35. Rates are increased.
2. The Danish Salaries of Public Servants Act abolishing the percentage cost-of-living adjustment so that in future the adjustment is carried out by a fixed øre-amount.
3. The Danish Profits Freeze Act.
4. The Danish Limitation of Dividends and Remunerations Act.
5. The Danish Resetting of the Price Index Act.
6. The Danish Interest Differentials of Banks Act.
7. Amendment of the Danish Pensions Act and adjustment of basic pensions and supplements.

CA 1977:
The holiday allowance is increased to 10 per cent.
A guaranteed minimum hourly pay rate of DKK 29.00 is fixed for payment by time.
Notice periods are improved.
A right to complain about environmental matters and have them considered by the organisations is ensured by collective agreement.
Rates are increased.

CA 1979:
Government intervention:
1. Extension of the collective agreements until 1 March 1981 including the amendments on which there was agreement between the parties before the coming into operation of the Act.
2. The guarantee payment is increased.
3. A common amount of DKK 225 million, which is mainly to be used for low-paid workers and to reduce any inequalities created.
Amendments to the Danish Holidays with Pay Act so that the holiday allowance is increased from 10 to 12 1/2 per cent from 1 September 1979 and so that holiday entitlement is increased by half a day per month's employment, also from that date. This means that in the holiday year from 1 April 1981 to 31 March 1982 the holiday is increased by 1 week to 5 weeks' holiday in the case of full employment in the 1980 calendar year (qualifying year).

CA 1981:
1. A general time-rate premium at 1 March 1981 of DKK 0.90 and a piecework premium of DKK 0.40.
2. Abolition of the guarantee payment of DKK 36.35 and fixing of a new minimum pay rate on 1 March 1981 of DKK 38.90.
3. Increase of the weekday holiday payment by 1/2 per cent.
4. Increase of the wages of apprentices and the minimum wages of young workers and increase of premiums and allowances.
5. First day off to care for a child under fourteen years of age during periods of sickness.
6. Time off for continuing training.
7. Overtime not taken as lieu days only allowed for up to 8 (previously 10) hours per month.
8. New notice period: for 50-year-olds and over with 9 years' seniority - 90 days.
9. Improvements of the shop steward protection.
10. A committee is set up to make preparations for a technology agreement providing for protection against e.g. dismissal due to new technology.

CA 1983:
1. All rates are increased.
2. A new training fund is established in the iron and steel industry with contributions from the employers of DKK 0.05 per working hour (approx DKK 10 million on an annual basis).
The employers' contribution to the LO/DA training fund is doubled to DKK 0.10 per working hour, i.e. DKK 0.08 for the LO (Danish Federation of Trade Unions) area, DKK 0.02 for DA (Danish Employers' Confederation).
3. A fixed-term protocol is incorporated into the time-rate clause of the collective agreement. This protocol gives the employers the possibility - and confirms this possibility - of controlling the wage development in the individual business, having regard to employment and productivity.

CA 1985:
Conflict and Government intervention:
The big industrial conflict started on Monday, 24 March 1985 and resulted in Government intervention with the passing of the Extension of the Collective Agreements Act on Saturday, 29 March 1985. In the Act the Government together with the Social Liberal Party dictated that wage increases in the first year of the collective agreement were not allowed to exceed 2 per cent and in the second year of the collective agreement 1 1/2 per cent.

CA 1987:
4-year agreement:
1. A 2-hour reduction in working hours until 1990 to 37 hours.
2. Wage compensation of DKK 1.86 per hour is granted for the working time reduction.
3. The minimum pay rate is increased on 1 March 1987.
4. The preamble of the collective agreement remains unchanged with a right to one annual wage negotiation.
5. All premiums and allowances of the collective agreement are increased by approx 20 per cent on 1 March 1987.
6. Midterm negotiations are agreed on 1 March 1989.
7. The chairman of the local union is granted the right to discuss matters with the management of the individual business.
8. Agreement on payment for foot protection.
9. Improvement of shop steward provisions.
Principal elements of collective agreement renewals since 1991 -2000
CA 1991:
1. The four-year collective agreement period is replaced by a two-year period.
2. The wage control provision in the collective agreement is removed.
3. Establishment of a labour market pension on 1 January 1993.
4. Minimum pay rates are increased.
5. The influence of the shop steward is strengthened.
6. Right to one week off per year for relevant training.
7. If a worker is injured at his workplace, the employer is under an obligation to pay up to 2 weeks' wages.
8. The collective agreement introduces rules on weekend work if both parties are interested in it.
9. All rates are increased by 6 per cent on 1 March 1991.

CA 1993:
1. Five collective agreements are gathered together in one.
2. Full pay during sickness for the first fourteen days of the period of sickness.
3. A working time committee is set up with the object of making preparations for the working time section of the Industrial Agreement so that it covers all types of working time - including working hours of shifts.
4. Setting up of an actual employment committee to follow and intensify the efforts to create new jobs through specific initiatives.
5. Increase of various rates.

CA 1995:
3-year agreement:
Variable weekly working hours:
Clause 9(2) of the agreement is deleted and replaced by a new subclause (2):
(a) Provided that local agreement can be reached, the working hours of all workers or groups of workers may be fixed as variable working hours per week as long as the weekly working hours are thirty-seven hours on average over a six-month period.
(b) The adoption of variable weekly working hours shall be conditional upon such working hours being fixed for up to twelve months at a time.
Any hours in excess of 37 per week may be taken as full days off subject to local negotiation without such days having been specified in the work schedule as long as they are within the agreed period, cf. (a) above. It may be agreed to accumulate the wages for application in connection with the hours off concerned.
(c) In the case of new engagements during a period with a number of working hours lower than the average, wage levelling may be established for a period of time.
(d) Overtime or staggered hours in connection with the fixed variable daily working hours as agreed shall be paid for in accordance with clauses 13 and 14 of this Agreement.
(e) The organisations agree that any failure to reach agreement may be made the subject of a discussion between the organisations.
(f) Such agreements may be terminated by giving two months' notice to expire at the end of a period as set out in clause 8 of this Agreement.
(g) Any current agreements, cf. clause 9(3) of the 1993 Agreement, shall cease on the expiration of the agreement, however not later than on 1 January 1996.

40-hour week determined by the employer:
The parties to the agreement agree that clause 9(3) of the agreement shall be deleted.
The ATP contribution is increased to 15 per cent.
Amendment of clause 11.
The parties agree that clause 11(1) and (2) shall be amended to:
11. - Tools, machinery, etc. shall be fully utilised during the working time applicable in the enterprise. The employer may carry out timekeeping control.
The shiftwork agreement:
Shiftwork is incorporated into the working time rules.
Payment for outwork (unchanged).
Sick pay:
The employer pays sick pay for up to four weeks from the first full day of absence.
Maternity leave in industry:
The provision enters into force on 1 March 1997.
Seniority rules/notice periods:
A provision is incorporated into clause 25(6)(2)(a) of the agreement to the effect that workers who have been employed by the same enterprise for six months are entitled to fourteen days' notice on the part of the employer.
Continuing training:
When, as decided by the enterprise, a worker attends courses for which an allowance for loss of earnings is paid, the worker will receive his normal wages exclusive of any premiums and allowances.
Employment agencies:
Protocol included in the Organisation Agreements of Industry.

Collective Agreement for Salaried Employees
The Collective Agreement for Salaried Employees covers the members of the Danish Association of Professional Technicians and the Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark, HK/Industri, which now have got a collective agreement for salaried employees in the industrial sector.

CA 1998
2-year agreement:
The Official Conciliator's mediation proposal for the agreement between DI (Confederation of Danish Industries) and CO was defeated in a ballot with record high attendance. 41.8 per cent of those entitled to vote in industry voted yes while 57.9 per cent voted no. This resulted in a big industrial conflict which lasted 11 days and Government intervention which reduced employers' sick pay, cut the agreed increases in pension contributions by 0.4 per cent and introduced the new concepts of days off for families with children and days off for holiday purposes:
Normal working hours must be between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. Normal working hours per week are thirty-seven hours for ordinary daywork, day shifts and for work during staggered hours.
(2) Provided that local agreement can be reached, the working hours of all workers or groups of workers may be fixed as variable working hours per week as long as the weekly working hours are thirty-seven hours on average over a twelve-month period.
For work on second and third shifts the working time is reduced from 35 to 34 hours.
24 December (Christmas Eve) will be a paid day off.
Workers who have been continuously employed by the enterprise for at least nine months are entitled to one day off for holiday purposes every year.
Payment is made as for sickness.
Workers who have been employed continuously for at least six months and who for one or more children are entitled to take the day off on the child's first day of sickness are entitled to two days off in 1998 and to 3 days off from 1999.
The minimum pay is increased by DKK 2 twice to a total of DKK 80.40 per hour.
Maternity pay is increased from DKK 95 to DKK 115 for hourly-paid workers, for salaried employees from DKK 15,232 to DKK 18,438 per month.
The inconvenience allowance is increased by 8.5 per cent.
Wages of apprentices, pupils and trainees are increased by up to 18 per cent.
Agreement on distance/home work.
More money for training in industry.
The pension contribution is increased to a total of 5.3 per cent, for salaried employees 4.4.

CA 2000

The agreement’s duration is 4 years. During this period the wage levels are, as is traditional in the Danish industrial relations system, determined by enterprise level agreements. Enterprise bargaining takes place once every year.
1. Extra 5 holidays for all – bringing the effective total up to 6 weeks paid holiday. The holidays are replacing the single holiday for all and the three special holidays for parents with children under the age of 14, which was introduced by the government, when it legislated on the collective agreement in 1998. The first 4 days are effective 1/5-2001, the last day 2/5 2003.
2. The contribution to the pension scheme is increased as follows:
Employer contribution Employee contribution
1. July 2000 0,8 % 0,2 %
1. July 2001 0,2 % 0,1 %
1. July 2002 0,8 % 0,4 %
1. July 2003 0,8 % 0,4 %
This brings the total contribution up to 9 % for workers and 8,1 % for salaried employees, 2/3 paid by the employer and 1/3 paid by the employee. This difference between the two groups is due to the fact that the workers group entered the pension scheme two years later than the salaried employees. This agreement rectifies the “discount” on the employers share of the pension payment, which they received from the government through the legislation in 1998.
3. For the first 14 weeks of maternity leave, the pay is increased, from 1/6-2000 to 120 Dkr/hour and from 1/5-2003 to full pay. This agreement concerns the supplement paid by the employer over and above the public contribution of 2055 DKR per week (corresponds to approx. 55 Dkr/hour).
4. Payment of full wages during illness is extended from currently 4 weeks to 5 weeks from 1/5 2000. This is also a supplementary payment over and above the public contribution of 2055 Dkr/hour.
5. Payment in connection to child’s first day of illness is increased to full pay from 1/6.2001.
6. The minimum level of pay is increased from 80,40 Dkr as follows:
1. March 2000 82,40 Dkr
1. March 2001 84,40 Dkr
1. March 2002 86,40 Dkr
For 2003 a separate bargaining round will take place on the minimum wages. This round will be conducted with the obligation to peace, and in case of disagreement the parties have agreed to call in a special mediator.
7. The wage rates of apprentices are increased with 3-4% per year per 1. March 2000, 2001 and 2002. For 2003 a separate bargaining round will take place on the apprentice wages similar to the one on the minimum wage.
8. The different benefits will be increased by 5 % from 1/3 2000 and 2% from 1/3 2002. For 2003 a separate bargaining round will take place on the benefits similar to the one on the minimum wage.
9. The working time can be fixed on a weekly, and if local agreement exists monthly or annual basis.
10. In case of experiments the agreement opens the possibility to agree on working time arrangements deviating from the collective agreement. This has to be approved by the parties in each single case.
11. The parties have agreed to work for gradual integration of the agreements for workers and salaried employees.
The agreement is expected to cost approximately 1% per year. This does not include the results of the enterprise level wage bargaining.